Грамматика английского языка – вопросы к экзамену и ответы

Грамматика английского языка – вопросы к экзамену и ответы на них

Грамматика английского языка – вопросы к экзамену и ответы на них

[1] The use of the Present Continuous Tense

The Present Continuous is formed by means of the Present In­definite of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb.

ПРИМЕР I am reading

In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

ПРИМЕР Am I reading?

In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb.

ПРИМЕР I am not reading

The Present Continuous is used to denote an action going on at the presentmoment. The Present Continuous is used when in Russian we can say сейчас (теперь), which refers not only to the moment of speaking, but has a wider meaning.

ПРИМЕР Robert is just now speaking to my uncle and they are shaking hands.

Katya is in Britain for three months. She is learning English. The Present Continuous can be used to denote a certain state or quality peculiar to the person at a given moment.

ПРИМЕР  You are being a nuisance.

When there are two actions one of which is in progress and the other is a habitual action, the first is expressed by the Present Continu­ous and the second by the Present Indefinite.

ПРИМЕР I never talk while I am working.

The Present Continuous is used when people are talking about their future arrangements. The Future Indefinite is not used in such cases.

ПРИМЕР  I’m leaving tonight. I’m playing golf tomorrow.

The Present Continuous is used to express a continual process. In this case the adverbs always, constantly, ever are used.

ПРИМЕР  The earth is always moving. The sun is ever shining.

The Present Continuous is used to express an action thought of as a continual process (with the adverbs always, ever; constantly). The action is represented as going on without any interval. ПРИМЕР She is always grumbling. “She is constantly thinking of you,” I said.

[2] The difference between the Past Indefinite and the Past Continuous Tense

The main difference is that the Past Simple rule is used to describe short single actions, while the Past Continuous rule is used to describe long actions. Also the main difference between Past Simple and Past Continuous is that in the first case it is important for us to show the sequence of events in the past, and in the second – to emphasize the duration of the action at a particular moment in the past. Past Simple is used for a sequence of events in the past, when it is important for us to show which event happened first. Past Continuous expresses a process at a certain point in the past. We use Past Continuous when we talk about what happened at a certain time or in a period of time in the past. Unlike Past Continuous, Past Simple is used to express a single action in the past.

ПРИМЕР Past Simple    We visited Prague last week.

Past Continuous    I was reading a book all morning yesterday.

Comparison table between Past Continuous and Past Simple. Past Simple is formed with the auxiliary did (in interrogative and negative sentences) and the second form of the main verb. If the verb is correct, then it is enough to add the ending -ed, and if it is incorrect, then you need to use the second form from the table of irregular verbs. Past Continuous, unlike Past Simple, is formed using the auxiliary verb be (was or were) and the main form of the verb with the ending – ing:

ПРИМЕР Past Simple    I worked yesterday.Past Continuous    We were watching  the news yesterday in the evening.

[3] The use of the indefinite article

The indefinite article has the forms a and an. The form a is used before words beginning with a consonant sound (a book, a pen, a stu­dent). The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (an opera, an apple, an hour).

The indefinite article is used to refer to something for the first time or to refer to a particular member of a group or class.

ПРИМЕР Would you like a drink?

Use a with names of jobs.

ПРИМЕР John is a doctor.

Use a with nationalities and religions in the singular.

ПРИМЕР Kate is a Catholic.

Use the article a or an to indicate one in number.

ПРИМЕР I own a cat and two dogs.

We do not use an indefinite article with plural nouns or uncount nouns:

ПРИМЕР  She was wearing blue shoes.

Use a with singular nouns after the words ‘what’ and ‘such’.

ПРИМЕР  What a shame!

Use a with the names of days of the week when not referring to any particular day.

ПРИМЕР I was born on a Thursday.

[4] The features of usage of The Present Perfect Tense and The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

The Present Perfect is formed by means of the Present Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb.

ПРИМЕР I have worked

In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

ПРИМЕР Have I worked?

In the negative form the negative particle is not placed after the auxiliary verb.

ПРИМЕР I have not worked

The Present Perfect denotes a completed action connected with the present.

ПРИМЕР Stop that car! They have killed a child.

The Present Perfect is used in adverbial clauses of time after the conjunctions when, till, until, before, after; as soon as to denote an action completed before a definite moment in the future.

ПРИМЕР Don’t buy any more meat tomorrow until you have spoken to the mistress about it.

The Present Perfect denotes an action which began in the past, has been going on up to the present and is still going on. In this case either the starting point of the action is indicated or the whole period of duration. The preposition for is used to denote the whole period of duration.

ПРИМЕР I have known you now for something like fourteen years.

The Present Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Present Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb.

ПРИМЕР I have been working

In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

ПРИМЕР Have I been working?

In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb.

ПРИМЕР I have not been working

Present Perfect Continuous time indicates an action that started in the past, continued for some time and either ended immediately before the conversation or is still ongoing at the time of the conversation.

ПРИМЕР I have been waiting here for 2 hours!

Use Cases of Present Perfect Continuous:

The action that started in the past has been going on for some time and is still going on at the moment of the conversation:

ПРИМЕР The workers have been trying to move our wardrobe for half an hour, go help them.

The action, which began in the past, continued for some time and ended just before the conversation:

ПРИМЕР Do you like this cake?  I have been baking it since morning.

[5] The plural form of nouns. Irregular Plural nounsThe plural form of nouns:

1.To make regular nouns plural, add s to the end (cat – cats, house – houses).

2. If the singular noun ends in s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z, add es to the end to make it plural (bus – buses, marsh – marshes, lunch – lunches).

3. In some cases, singular nouns ending in -s or -z, require that you double the -s or -z prior to adding the -es for pluralization (fez – fezzes, gas –gasses).

4. If the noun ends with f or fe, the f is often changed to ve before adding the -s to form the plural version (wife – wives, wolf – wolves.

Exceptions: roof – roofs, belief – beliefs, chef – chefs, chief – chiefs).

5. If a singular noun ends in y and the letter before the -y is a consonant, change the ending to ies to make the noun plural (city – cities, puppy – puppies).

6. If the singular noun ends in -y and the letter before the -y is a vowel, simply add an -s to make it plural (ray – rays, boy – boys).

7. If the singular noun ends in o, add es to make it plural (potato – potatoes, tomato – tomatoes.

Exceptions: photo – photos, piano – pianos,halo – halos).

8. If the singular noun ends in us, the plural ending is frequently i (cactus – cacti, focus – foci).

9. Some nouns don’t change at all when they’re pluralized (sheep – sheep, series – series, species – species, deer –deer).

Irregular nouns follow no specific rules, so it’s best to memorize these or look up the proper pluralization in the dictionary (child – children, goose – geese, man – men, woman – women, tooth – teeth, foot – feet, mouse – mice, person – people).

[6] The formation and use of the Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect is formed by means of the Present Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb.

ПРИМЕР I have worked

In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

ПРИМЕР Have I worked?

In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the auxiliary verb.

ПРИМЕР I have not worked

The use of the Present Perfect:

The Present Perfect denotes a completed action connected with the present. ПРИМЕР I am a little frightened for I have lost my way.

To share recent news, we use Present Perfect. We draw your attention to the fact that news is usually told about further details in Past Simple:

ПРИМЕР I’ve passed my English exam! (новость) I scored 90%! (детали)

Actions that have been repeated many times so far.

ПРИМЕР  I’ve called you three times, where have you been?

The Present Perfect is frequently used with the adverbs just, yet, already and of late.

ПРИМЕР  I have just written to him.

The Present Perfect is used in adverbial clauses of time after the conjunctions when, till, until, before, after; as soon as to denote an action completed before a definite moment in the future.

ПРИМЕР Don’t buy any more meat tomorrow until you have spoken to the mistress about it.

[7] The Common and Possessive case of the nouns

English nouns have only two cases: Possessive Case where nouns take the special ending; and Common Case where nouns don’t have any ending.

The Common case is the form in which the noun is given in the dictionary. English nouns in the Common case can be used in the functions of the subject and direct complement (always without a preposition), an indirect and prepositional complement, an attribute (usually with or without a preposition).

Possessive case of singular nouns is formed by adding the /’s/ ending to the noun: (the girls‘s hat , John‘s friend).

Possessive case of plural nouns is formed just by adding an apostrophe: (the boys‘ book, the girls‘ bags).

If a plural noun is formed by changing its form the possessive case is formed by adding the /’s/ ending: ( man‘s happiness, men‘s happiness).

Use for the expression of the object’s belonging (the  student’s pen, John’s car).

For the expression of the qualitative characteristics of the object (men’s clothes, a children’s room).

The use of the possessive case for inanimate nouns:

Nouns denoting time and space (I shall have a week’s holiday next month.)

Some adverbs of time (today’s program, yesterday’s concert). The /’s/ ending can be used with more than a single word (John and Tom’s room).

[8] Formation of the Past Indefinite Tense. Constructions used to and would to describe past habits and states

The Past Indefinite is formed by adding -ed or -d to the stem (regular verbs), or by changing the root vowel, or in some other ways (irregular verbs).

ПРИМЕР I worked (wrote).

The interrogative and the negative forms are formed by means of the Past Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to do (did) and the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to. 

ПРИМЕРЫ Did I work (write)? I did not work (write)

The Past Indefinite denotes an action performed within a period of time which is already over. The action is cut off from the present. The time of the action may be indicated by adverbials of past time, such as yesterday, a week ago, last year, etc.

ПРИМЕР Ellean breakfasted two hours ago, and then went out walking with the dog.

The Past Indefinite can correspond to the Russian past perfective and past imperfective (совершенный и несовершенный вид).

ПРИМЕР He smoked a cigarette and left the room (выкурил).He smoked in silence for a few minutes (курил).

The Past Indefinite is used to denote:

(a)an action performed in the past.

ПРИМЕР We entered Farmer Ridley’s meadow in silence. (Marryat)

(b)a succession of past actions.

In this case the Past Indefinite is rendered in Russian by the past perfective.

ПРИМЕР He threw down his spade and entered the house. (Ch. Bronte) — Он бросил лопату и вошел в дом.

(с)repeated actions in the past.

In this case the Past Indefinite is rendered in Russian by the past imperfective.

ПРИМЕР He made an entry in his diary every night. (Bennett) — Каждый вечер он делал запись в дневнике.

When we talk about things in the past that are not true any more, we can do it in different ways.

1. USED TO + Infinitive is used to talk about:

А) habitual or regular actions that NO LONGER happen (We used to collect her from school).

В) A past state (a situation or feeling) that lasted a long time but which is NO LONGER true (We used to live in London (now we live in county).

С) Sometimes used to does not denote repeated actions, but actions charac¬terizing a person or actions or states which lasted a long time (The Reed used to like the rain).

2. WOULD+ Infinitive is only used for repeated past actions (She would often go to noisy London clubs (many times in the past, but not now).

3. When we are telling a story and recollecting an event from long ago, we often prefer to use WOULD to describe repeated behaviour in the past, although both WOULD+ Infinitive and USED TO + Infinitive are possible: Do you remember what we used to get up to when we were teenagers? How I would wait for you nearly every afternoon after school and then we would stroll home together across the park, holding hands, and you would feed the ducks on the pond while I had a cigarette?

[9] The use of definite article

The definite article is used:

1)  names of rivers, lakes, waterfalls, straits, canals, seas and oceans: the Volga (Volga River), the Black Sea (Black Sea), the Pacific Ocean (Pacific Ocean), etc.

2) the names of groups of islands and mountain ranges: the Kurilas (Kuril Islands), the Alps (Alpine mountains), etc .;

3) desert names: the Sahara (Sahara desert), the Gobi (Gobi desert), etc.

4) region names: the Lake District (Scotland), the Far East (Far East), etc .;

5) country names including such elements as Federation, Kingdom, States, Republic: the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland etc.

6) plural country names: the Netherlands, the Philippines, etc.

7) names of theaters, galleries, museums: the Bolshoi Theater (Bolshoi Theater), the Tretyakov Gallery (Tretyakov Gallery), etc.

8) names of ships and famous trains: the Titanic (the Titanic ship), the Orient Express (the Orient Express train), etc .;

9) names of American and English newspapers: the Times (daily newspaper in Great Britain), the Financial Times etc .;

10) the names of various organizations and political parties: the United Nations (the UN), the Conservative Party (political party of Great Britain), etc .;

11) names of musical groups, but with the condition that the noun is in the plural: the Beatles (“Beatles”), the Rolling Stones (“Rolling Stones”), etc .;

12) names of sporting events: the Olympic Games, the World Cup, etc.

13)The definite article is used if the subject in a particular context is included a second time (This is a book. The book is interesting.)

[10] The formation and use of Present Perfect Continuous Tense

The Present Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Present

Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb.

ПРИМЕР I have been working

In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject.

ПРИМЕР Have I been working?

In the negative form the negative particle not is placed after the first auxiliary verb.

ПРИМЕР I have not been working

Present Perfect Continuous time indicates an action that started in the past, continued for some time and either ended immediately before the conversation or is still ongoing at the time of the conversation.

ПРИМЕР I have been waiting here for 2 hours!

Use Cases of Present Perfect Continuous:

The action that started in the past has been going on for some time and is still going on at the moment of the conversation:

ПРИМЕР The workers have been trying to move our wardrobe for half an hour, go help them.

The action, which began in the past, continued for some time and ended just before the conversation:

ПРИМЕР Do you like this cake?  I have been baking it since morning.

[11] Omission of the article

1) the names of individual islands and mountain peaks: Haiti (Haiti island), Everest (Mount Everest);

2) names of villages, cities, regions, countries, continents: Afanasyevka (Afanasyevka village), Volgograd (Volgograd), etc .;

3) place names with the words north (ern), south (ern), east (ern), west (ern), central, medieval, old, ancient: South Africa, Central America, etc .;

4) names of bays and peninsulas: Mexican Bay (Gulf of Mexico), Kamchatka (Kamchatka peninsula), etc .;

5) names of foreign newspapers: Komsomolskaya pravda (Komsomolskaya Pravda), Izvestiya (Izvestia), etc .;

6) names of schools, colleges, universities: Carnegie College (Andrew Carnegie College), Moscow University (Moscow State University), etc .;

7) names of streets, squares, parks: Lenina Street (Lenin Street), Trafalgar Square (Trafalgar Square), Gorky Park (Gorky Park), etc .;

8) Names of months and days of the week: December, Friday, etc.

9) names of airports, bridges: Heathrow (Heathrow airport), Tower Bridge (Tower Bridge), etc .;

10) language names: English (English), Russian (Russian), Italian (Italian), Japanese (Japanese), etc.

[12] The contrast between the Present Perfect Tense and the Past Indefinite Tense

1. Present Perfect Tense is used to express unfinished events that started in the past and continue to the present. The events are still continuing.

ПРИМЕРhave lived in Paris for five years. (I still live in Paris)

Simple Past Tense is used to express finished events.

ПРИМЕР My son was sick on Monday. (My son isn’t sick now)

2. Present Perfect Tense is used to express finished events in someone’s life. (if the person is still alive – life experience)

ПРИМЕР have been to England in my life.  (I am alive)

Simple Past Tense is used to express finished events in someone’s life.(if the person is dead)

ПРИМЕР He travelled a lotby plane. (He is dead)

3. Present Perfect Tense is used to express finished events that happened at an unspecified time in the past and the impact of the event is now continuing. (Past Event – Present Result)

ПРИМЕР Tom isn’t at school. I think he has gone to the theater.

Simple Past Tense is used to express finished events. There is no result in the present.

ПРИМЕР He went to the theater two hours ago. (now he is at school – there is no result now)

4.Present Perfect Tense is used withunfinished time words (this week, today, this year etc.).The period of time is still continuing.

ПРИМЕР We haven’t called him this week. (“this week” is not over yet).

Simple Past Tense is used with finished time words (yesterday, last week, in 2000, etc.). 

ПРИМЕР We didn’t call him yesterday.

[13] The use of articles with proper nouns

1. Names of people are used without articles. (Saria looked at Lanny and Celia.)

2. Names denoting the whole family are used with the definite article. (The Dashwood’s were now settled at Breton.)

3. When names of people are used to denote a representative of a family, the indefinite article is used. (“Florence will never, never, never be a Dombey,” said Mrs. Chick.)

4. Nouns denoting military ranks and titles such as academician, professor; doctor (both a profession and a title), count, lord, etc. followed by names of people do not take the article. In such cases only the proper noun is stressed: Colonel Brown, Doctor Strong.

5. Geographical names like all the other proper nouns are used without articles: England, France, Moscow, London.

6. With names of oceans, seas, rivers the definite article is used: The Pacific Ocean (the Pacific), the Black Sea, the Thames, the Ohio River.

7. With names of mountain chains the definite article is used: the Urals, the Alps.

8. With names of single islands there is no article: Madagascar.

9. Names of streets and squares are used without articles: Oxford Street, Wall Street, Trafalgar Square, Russell Square.

10. Names of hotels, restaurants, pubs, theatres, cinemas, museums/ galleries, ships, newspapers and magazines are used with the definite article. The three men came to the turning at the corner of the Grosvenor Hotel. 11. As a rule names of months and days are used without articles. May is a spring month.

[14] Degrees of comparison of adjectives. Comparison structures

The comparative form is used to compare two people, ideas, or things.

For the comparative degree we use the ending -er, (Small – smaller)

for superlatives we use the article the and the ending –est. (The smallest)

If adjectives has Three or more syllablewe use words more/less for  the comparative degree  (Thoughtful – more/less thoughtful)

And the words most\least, article the for superlative form (The most/least clever) There are some words thich which completely change. (Good – better – the best)

[15] The contrast between The Present Indefinite Tense and The Present Continuous Tense

Present Simple Things which are always true: Water boils at 100 degrees.

Present Continuous Things which are happening at the moment of speaking: The water is boiling now, so you can put in the pasta.

Present Simple Permanent situations (or nearly permanent; true for a few years at least):

Julie lives in London.

Present Continuous Temporary situations: Julie is living in Paris for a few months (usually she lives in London).

Present Simple Habits or things we do regularly: I drink coffee every morning.

Present Continuous Temporary or new habits: I‘m drinking too much coffee these days because I’m so busy at work.

Present Simple Future events which are part of a timetable: My plane leaves at eight tonight.

Present Continuous Definite future plans: I‘m meeting John after class today.

Present Simple To talk about what happens in books, plays and films: At the end of the book, the detective catches the killer.Present Continuous To talk about people in pictures and photos: In this photo, my mother is walking beside a lake.

[16] The Adverb. Groups of adverbs. Degrees of comparison

The adverb is a part of speech which expresses some circumstances that attend an action or state or points out some characteristic features of an action or a quality.

The function of the adverb is that of an adverbial modifier. An adverb may modify verbs (verbal’s), words of the category of state, adjectives, and adverbs.

ПРИМЕРЫ Annette turned her neck lazily, touched one eyelash and said: “He amuses Winifred.” And glancing sidelong at his nephew he thought. Harris spoke quite kindly and sensibly about it.

As to their structure adverbs are divided into:

(1) simple adverbs (long, enough, then, there, etc.);

(2) derivative adverbs (slowly, likewise, forward, headlong, etc.); (The most productive adverb-forming suffix is -ly. There are also some other suffixes: -wards, -ward; -long, -wise.)

(3) compound adverbs (anyhow, sometimes, nowhere, etc.);

(4) composite adverbs (at once, at last, etc.).

Some adverbs have degrees of comparison.

(a)If the adverb is a word of one syllable, the comparative degree ‘s formed by adding -er and the superlative by adding -est.

fast — faster — fastest             hard — harder — hardest

(b)Adverbs ending in -ly form the comparative by means of more and the superlative by means of most.

ПРИМЕР Wisely — more / wisely — most wisely, beautifully — more/ beautifully — most beautifull.

(c) Some adverbs have irregular forms of comparison:

well — better — best / badly — worse — worst / much — more — most / little — less — least

According to their meaning adverbs fall under several groups:

(1) adverbs of time (today, tomorrow, soon, etc.);

(2) adverbs of repetition or frequency (often, seldom, ever; never, sometimes, etc.);

(3) adverbs of place and direction (inside, outside, here, there, back­ward, upstairs, etc.);

(4) adverbs of cause and consequence (therefore, consequently, ac­cordingly, etc.);

(5) adverbs of manner (kindly, quickly, hard, etc.);

(5) adverbs of degree, measure and quantity (very, enough, half, too, nearly, almost, much, little, hardly, rather, exceedingly, quite, once, twice, firstly, secondly, etc.).

Three groups of adverbs stand aside: interrogative, relative and conjunctive adverbs.

Interrogative adverbs (where, when, why, how) are used in special questions.

Conjunctive and relative adverbs are used to introduce subordinate clauses.1 Some adverbs are homonymous with nouns, adjectives, prepo­sitions, conjunctions, words of the category of state and modal words4.

[17] Personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns

The personal pronouns are: I, he, she, it, we, you, they. The personal pronouns have the grammatical categories of person, case, number and (in the third person singular) gender.

The personal pronouns have two cases: the nominative case and the objective case.

The nominative case: I, he, she, it, we, you, they.1

The objective case: me, him, her, it, us, you, them.2

The personal pronouns have two numbers, singular (I, he, she, it) and plural (we, they). The second-person pronoun you is both singular and plural. The pronouns of the third person he, she, it distinguish gender.

Пример: He did not know what to do with his cap, and was stuffing it into his coat pocket…

Personal pronouns may have different functions in the sentence, those of subject, object, predicative:

ПРИМЕРЫ My name is Lisa. I have three dogs.The pronoun I is the subject.

My sister is very friendly. Everyone likes her. – The pronoun her is the object.

Possessive pronouns have the same distinctions of person, number, and gender as personal pronouns. Possessive pronouns: my, his, her, its, our, your, their; mine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs.

Possessive pronouns have two forms, namely the dependent (or conjoint) form and the independent (or absolute) form.

The conjoint form is used when the possessive pronoun comes before the noun it modifies. The conjoint form of the possessive pronoun is used as an attribute.

ПРИМЕР In his turn old Jolyon looked back at his son.

The absolute form is used when the possessive pronoun does not modify any noun.

The absolute form of the possessive pronoun may be used as subject, predicative or object. The group ‘preposition + absolute form’ may be used as an attribute.

ПРИМЕР “Yours (sum of money) won’t come short of a hundred thousand, my boy,” said old Jolyon.(SUBJECT)

… he realized that she was making an effort to talk his talk, and he resolved to get away from it and talk hers. (London) (OBJECT)

Possessive pronouns are often used before the names of the parts of the body, clothing, things belonging to a person, etc. In that case they are not translated into Russian.

ПРИМЕР Young Jolyon rose and held out his hand to help his father up. — Молодой Джолион поднялся и протянул руку, чтобы помочь отцу встать.

Reflexive pronouns have the categories of person, number, and gender in the third person singular.

Reflexive pronouns: myself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourself (yourselves), themselves.

Reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the sentence in which they are used, indicating that the action performed by the doer passes back to him or is associated with him.

In the sentence they are usually used as direct objects.

ПРИМЕР In that moment of emotion he betrayed the Forsyte in him — for­got himself, his interests, his property — was capable of almost anything…(OBJECT)

Reflexive pronouns may be used as predicatives.

ПРИМЕР When she came back she was herself again.(PREDI­CATIVE)

Reflexive pronouns may be used to form the reflexive voice (in this case reflexive pronouns are structural words):

ПРИМЕР And then I dressed myself and came away to find you.

[18] Demonstrative, interrogative and indefinite pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, such, (the) same. The demonstrative pronouns this and that have two numbers: this — these; that — those.

This is used to point at what is nearer in time or space; that points at what is farther away in time or space.

ПРИМЕР He looked him over critically. “Yes, this boy might do,” he thought.

This and that may be applied both to persons and things.

ПРИМЕР Тhis girl was French. What do you think of that Belgian fellow?

The pronoun such.

ПРИМЕР She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the only one of the white company who could boast of such a pronounced adorn­ment.

The pronoun same is always used with the definite article.

ПРИМЕР The driver was a young man… wearing a dandy cap, drab jacket, breeches of the same hue.

The demonstrative pronouns this and that are used as subjects, predicative, objects, and attributes.

We were in the same classes. (ATTRIBUTE)

It is to be feared the same could not be said of you, were you to be called hence. (SUBJECT)

Sunday was the same as before.(PREDICA­TIVE)

“May this young man do the same!” said Angel fervently.(OBJECT)

Interrogative pronouns are used in inquiry, to form special ques­tions. They are: who, whose, what, which. The interrogative pronoun who has the category of case: the nomi­native case is who, the objective case whom.

Who refers to human beings: ПРИМЕР Who was that?

What when not attributive usually refers to things but it may be applied to people when one inquires about their occupation.

ПРИМЕР “What was he?” “A painter.”

Which has a selective meaning: it corresponds to the Russian ‘который из’ (an individual of the group). It may refer to people and things.

ПРИМЕР Which of us does he mean? Which side of the bed do you like, Mum?

In the sentence interrogative pronouns may have different func­tions — those of subject, predicative, object, and attribute:

ПРИМЕРЫ Who has been to see you? (SUB­JECT)

“What was her father?” “Heron was his name, a Professor, sothey tell me.” (PREDICATIVE)

“Who do you mean?” I said. (OBJECT)

Which day is it that Dorloote Mill is to be sold?(AT­TRIBUTE)

Indefinite pronouns point out some person or thing indefinitely. The indefinite pronouns are some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, anything, one.

The pronouns somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, ояе have two cases: the common case and the genitive case.

Some is chiefly used in affirmative sentences while any is used in negative and interrogative sentences and in conditional clauses.

ПРИМЕР We spread down some wide blankets. If you have any new books, show them to me please.

Some, not any, is used in special and general questions expressing some request or proposal.

ПРИМЕР “Do you want some water?” “No, I don’t want any water.”

Somebody, someone, something art chiefly used in affirmative sentences.

ПРИМЕР I want to say something.

Anybody, anyone, anything are used in negative and interrogative sentences and in conditional clauses.

ПРИМЕР I don’t want anything.

Somebody, someone, something art used in special and general ques­tions if they express some request or proposal.

ПРИМЕР Will someone help me?

The indefinite-personal pronoun one is often used in the sense of any person or every person.

ПРИМЕР New York presents so many temptations for one to run into ex­travagance.

The pronoun one may be used in the genitive case:

ПРИМЕР I know exactly what it feels like to be held down on one’s back.

As a word-substitute one may be used in the plural:

ПРИМЕР Тhe younger ones, together with the younger ladies, were playing billiards in the billiard room.

[19] The use of the Past Indefinite Tense

The Past Indefinite denotes an action performed within a period of time which is already over. The action is cut off from the present. The time of the action may be indicated by adverbials of past time, such as yesterday, a week ago, last year, etc.

ПРИМЕР Ellean breakfasted two hours ago, and then went out walking with the dog.

The Past Indefinite can correspond to the Russian past perfective and past imperfective (совершенный и несовершенный вид).

ПРИМЕР He smoked a cigarette and left the room (выкурил).He smoked in silence for a few minutes (курил).

The Past Indefinite is used to denote:

(a)an action performed in the past.

ПРИМЕР We entered Farmer Ridley’s meadow in silence. (Marryat)

(b)a succession of past actions.

In this case the Past Indefinite is rendered in Russian by the past perfective.

ПРИМЕР He threw down his spade and entered the house. (Ch. Bronte) — Он бросил лопату и вошел в дом.

(с)repeated actions in the past.

In this case the Past Indefinite is rendered in Russian by the past imperfective.

ПРИМЕР He made an entry in his diary every night. (Bennett) — Каждый вечер он делал запись в дневнике.

[20] Numerals. Writing the time, dates, telephone numbers, addresses

The numeral is a part of speech which indicates number or the order of people and things in a series.

Accordingly, numerals are divided into cardinals (cardinal numer­als) and ordinals (ordinal numerals).

Cardinal numerals indicate exact number, they are used in counting. As to their structure, the cardinal numerals from 1 to 12 and 100, 1000, 1,000,000 are simple words {one, two, three, etc., hundred, thousand, million); those from 13 to 19 are derivatives with the suffix -teen (thir­teen, fourteen, etc.); the cardinal numerals indicating tens are formed by means of the suffix -ty (twenty, thirty, etc.). The numerals from 21 to 29, from 31 to 39, etc. are composite: twenty-two, thirty-five, etc.

Ordinal numerals show the order of people and things in a series. With the exception of the first three (first, second, third) the ordinal numerals are formed from cardinal numerals by means of the suffix -th. In ordinal groups only the last member of the group takes the ordinal form: (the) sixty-fifth, (the) twenty-third.

In fractional numbers the numerator is a cardinal and the denomi­nator is a substantivized ordinal: two-thirds, three-sixths.

Writing the time, The abbreviations AM and PM can be used when writing the time as numerals. AM is short for ante meridiem, meaning “before noon.”

PM is short for post meridiem, meaning “after noon.”

When writing the time as words, we use “after,” “past,” and “to” for intervals between hours. We can combine these terms with either numbers or the words “half” and “quarter” depending on the time in question:

  • Use after or past for intervals up to half an hour past the hour.
  • Use to for any interval after the half hour up to the hour.
  • Use half past to indicate 30 minutes past the hour.
  • Use quarter past or quarter after for 15 minutes after the hour.
  • Use quarter to for 15 minutes up to the hour.

Dates

The most common way in British English is to write the day of the month first, then the month (starting with a capital letter) and then the year: 20 January 1993.

Sometimes the last two letters of the number as spoken can be used (thrdstnd): Today is the 7th September.

In written American English, the month of the date comes before the day and year. For example, Independence Day in the USA is on July 4th each year.

There are two ways to say the year in English. Until the year 2000, every year was pronounced as two numbers. For example,1485 – fourteen eighty-five, 1750 – seventeen fifty.

While for the first ten years of the 21st century, we use the word ‘thousand’. For example: 2000 – two thousand, 2006 – two thousand six.

From the year 2010 onwards we can say two numbers again. For example,

2012 – twenty twelve.

In English, we give telephones numbers by saying each individual number in it: 3692-5847 = three six nine two, five eight four seven.

How to say 0 in a phone number: The most common way is to pronounce the Zero like the name of the letter O (oh) : 5059-1023 = five oh five nine, one oh two three.

If a phone number contains two of the same numbers together, we usually say double (then that number): 5718-3369 = five seven one eight, double three, six, nine.

If a phone number contains three of the same numbers together, we usually say triple (then that number): 2149-8777 = two one four nine, eight triple seven.

Аdress

US and UK addresses are usually composed according to the following rules:

  • Name of the person to whom the letter is intended
  • Organization (if the letter is for business communication)
  • House number, street name, apartment number
  • City name (and state for US)
  • Postcode
  • The name of the country

Example:

Miss S Pollard
2 Chapel Hill
Heswall
BOURNEMOUTH
BH1 1AA
UK

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